The assumption of eternal existence raises the fundamental question of origin: from whence did this entity emerge, and what is it? Any notion prefaced with “given” or encompassing the idea of a Singularity remains bereft of meaning unless its genesis is elucidated. A parallel conundrum emerges with the concept of a divine being. The foundational constituents underpinning the universe appear as logical loops devoid of substance, engendering an infinite regression of senseless circular reasoning unless their provenance can be substantiated.
The genesis of the cosmos stands as an enthralling and perennially contested subject, captivating both scientific and philosophical minds. At the genesis lies the Big Bang theory, postulating that the universe sprang forth from an immense explosion nearly 13.8 billion years ago. Central to this notion is the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, residual warmth echoing the aftermath of the colossal explosion, serving as tangible testament to the theory’s veracity.
But where did it all come from? The question of origin has puzzled humans for centuries. The idea that something exists forever without a beginning or an end seems incomprehensible to many. This is where the concept of singularities, or anything that begins with the word “given,” falls short. Unless their origins can be explained, they represent meaningless tautologies in endless types of circular logic.
Similarly, the question of where God comes from has perplexed many. Arguments based on initial materials represent pointless exercises in circular logic unless their origins can be verified.
One popular idea is that the universe was created by thermodynamic balance, providing the energy for its creation. However, this notion is incorrect, pushing the question of origin one step back by suggesting that energy created mass without explaining where the energy came from.
Another idea is that the universe was created by quantum foam, the fluctuation of spacetime due to quantum mechanics. Matter and antimatter are constantly created and destroyed in this process, resulting in the creation of virtual particles. This concept was first devised by John Wheeler in 1955.
But again, the question of origin remains. Where did quantum foam come from? If it is formed simultaneously with antique foam, the equation would be in equilibrium. But where did the foam originally come from?
Ultimately, the question of origin may remain unanswered. All theories and concepts, scientific or otherwise, have limitations and may not fully explain the origins of the universe. The search for understanding the origins of the universe is an ongoing endeavor and may never be fully understood.
First, there was no light in the Big Bang. The Big Bang Theory, the most widely accepted scientific explanation for the origin of the universe, states that the universe originated as an incredibly hot and dense singularity about 13.8 billion years ago. At this moment, the universe was so dense that no light could escape, and it was in a state of complete darkness. As the universe expanded and cooled, subatomic particles began to form, eventually leading to the formation of atoms. About 380,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe cooled enough for atoms to combine and form neutral hydrogen gas. This gas then began to form clouds, which collapsed under gravity to form the first stars, the first sources of light in the universe. It is estimated that the first stars formed about 100 million years after the Big Bang. The Big Bang isn’t an explosion in the common sense but the expansion and cooling of the universe from an incredibly hot and dense state, occurring not in pre-existing space.
While the Big Bang theory explains the origin of the universe and the creation of matter and energy, it doesn’t explain the origin of space and time. Some theories propose that space-time and matter are emergent from a deeper layer of reality or that space-time itself was created in the Big Bang.
Thermodynamic equilibrium exists when the properties of a system do not change due to external influences. A cold drink reaching the air’s temperature illustrates this. The zeroth law of thermodynamics observes this equilibrium. The First Law of Thermodynamics, the law of energy conservation, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or converted. The Second Law of Thermodynamics, the law of entropy, states that entropy, a measure of a system’s disorder, will always increase in an isolated system until thermodynamic equilibrium is reached.
For a system to reach thermodynamic equilibrium, it must be in mechanical, thermal, and chemical equilibrium. No net forces act on the system, no temperature gradients are present, and all chemical reactions have reached equilibrium. At thermodynamic equilibrium, energy cannot be transferred or converted within the system. The system remains in this state until acted upon by an external force or energy source. Thermodynamic equilibrium is essential to understanding energy behavior in a system. The statement that energy creates mass relates to the equation E=mc^2, true only in the realm of special and general relativity.
In other words, energy creates mass without revealing its source. It is incorrect to say the universe was created by thermodynamic balance providing energy for its creation.
The Big Bang theory is widely accepted, supported by observational evidence, including the cosmic microwave background radiation, the large-scale structure of the universe, and abundances of light elements. It aligns with laws of thermodynamics and general relativity. However, it doesn’t explain the origin of space and time.
Some theories like Loop quantum gravity, String theory, propose space-time and matter are emergent from a deeper layer of reality or created in the Big Bang.
The question of how the universe came into existence has different angles, resulting in various theories. Philosophers, particularly, present famous arguments. The cosmological argument posits everything must have a cause, often pointing to the Big Bang as evidence. The teleological argument suggests the universe’s complexity implies an intelligent designer. Arguments based on time and causation, like the Kalam cosmological argument, claim the universe had a beginning and must have had a cause, argued to be God.
Regardless, no definitive answer to the question of the universe’s origin exists. The topic remains one of the most intriguing and challenging questions in human inquiry.
The debates and arguments about the creation of the universe may not impact an ordinary person’s daily life directly. Still, they shape our understanding of the world and our place in it.
Scientific concepts are products of human intellect. Without humans, these concepts would hold no significance. Our pursuit of knowledge has formulated scientific concepts explaining natural phenomena.
Humans impose laws on the natural world, suggesting agency and power over natural forces. This idea is central to scientific inquiry, rooted in our desire to comprehend the natural world.
Through observation, experimentation, and analysis, we uncover the order and structure inherent in nature. Scientific theories and concepts help us understand the world and unravel its mysteries.
Humans play a profound role in shaping our understanding of the universe. We are the authors of scientific concepts explaining the natural world, engaging in an ongoing dialogue between nature and humanity, a testament to the power of human thought and curiosity.